The instruction of this lesson centers on a close reading of a rich and rigorous nonfiction text about penguins. The teacher targets academic vocabulary creatively, and spends time on text features including the captions and genre. She incorporates kinesthetic and maps into her teaching, further deepening knowledge. Students discuss, annotate, defend their answers with evidence, and show increasing comprehension and understanding of the text as they read. This lesson is a strong example of close reading at this grade level, and exhibits several examples of all three core actions.
Addresses ELA/Literacy Common Core State Standards: 2.RI.1, 2.RI.2, 2.RI.3, 2.RI.4, 2.RI.5, 2.RI.6, 2.RI.10, 2.SL.1, 2.SL.1.b, 2.SL.2
Building Knowledge Through Close Reading (Domyancic)Download
2B, 3A: The teacher asks students to "read closely" and use the book as a resource to get "proof." Students are obviously comfortable with text-based learning and discussion. The teacher provides a graphic organizer to support students with the task of collecting evidence from the text.
3A, 3D: As students reread, they are encouraged to think about textual evidence, in order to work with a partner. The students also know they can reread independently if they need to look for more evidence.
1A, 2A, 3A: Students begin reading with a discussion about whether the text is fiction or nonfiction, and about the author's purpose. They use appropriate vocabulary, such as "informational" and "genre" when speaking. One student provides an incorrect answer and the teacher redirects him by drawing their attention back to the text.
2D, 3D, 3E: Teacher draws attention to the map, and uses it to build knowledge. A student reads and the teacher notes that she monitors her reading well. The teacher blends reading aloud, reading with students, and a student reading independently. Students practice fluency and inflection.
2A, 2C: The teacher draws students' attention to the caption on the page. They discuss the purpose of a caption in nonfiction text, read this particular caption and then discuss the information learned. Students then stand up so the teacher can help them connect the typical size of an Emperor Penguin to their typical size.
2A, 2B, 3B: The teacher asks for precision around student knowledge about penguin eggs. Students answer a question with evidence, and are able to identify and annotate where in the text they locate this evidence.
1C, 2A, 2B, 3A: Students raise their hands when they hear evidence. They answer the text-based question, follow along, and fill in evidence and the page number. The word "krill" is mentioned while reading a caption, and the teacher helps them connect that evidence into their graphic organizer. The teacher moves smoothly between reading and discussing the text.
1C, 2C, 3A: Teacher focuses students on the word "hatch." A student answers a question and, when prompted, uses evidence from the text, reading the evidence aloud, to defend her statement.
1C, 2C, 2D: When the text mentions that May or June is the beginning of winter in Antarctica, the teacher uses the globe to assist students in understanding the difference in seasons between the U.S. and Antarctica, reinforcing geography terms such as Northern Hemisphere and Equator, and academic vocabulary such as "opposite." The teacher's questions, stemming from the text, help students to build knowledge.
1B (FS), 2C, 3B: A student struggles with the word "trundle." The teacher asks for other students to help and then points out that he has the beginning blend, "tr," then the student gets the word. The teacher checks students understanding of the word "trundle" and, when there is confusion, asks the students to role-play the phrase "trundles along very, very slowly." The teacher questions why the penguins are moving slowly, and connects the new knowledge back to the content of the text.
1E (FS), 3D: The teacher has moved to actively assist a student to remain focused on the text and is clearly checking for students' understanding of the text. She pauses to identify that the student has read the caption as part of the text, when it should be read separately, then gives the student the opportunity to reread the text correctly.
1E (FS), 3B, 3D: A student reads the word "though" as "touch." The teacher and students quickly discuss the fact that the "th" makes the "th sound" and the student rereads correctly. Another student points out that they could collect the evidence "it slides" under the behavior section of their graphic organizer.
2C, 3A: The teacher points out that there is a new vocabulary word on the page that means "a loud noise." Students discuss whether it would be "trumpeting" or "racket" then they discuss the fact that there are two meanings to the word "racket." They then discuss the meaning of the word "trumpeting" and the teacher allows the students to "trumpet like a penguin," then reinforces both words by calling their voice "racket."
2B, 3D: The teacher works with students on finding examples of how the penguin acts. She first models, then scaffolds their work by encouraging them to locate a second answer on their own and reread the part of the text that states how the penguin slides. She removes the final scaffold then, by asking them to find a page that explains how penguins walk.
1B (FS), 2C, 3C: Students are provided with the opportunity to learn grammar within the context of a text. The teacher has students quickly define the term "habitat," and then asks for adjectives, pointing out several times that an adjective is a "describing word." The teacher also asks for assistance with squid mentioning that a "u always follows a q" and sounding out the end. She also provides a chance for phonemic awareness and spelling with words "fish" and "krill."
1A, 2C, 3A: Teacher explains that students will use their yellow highlighters to highlight any word they do not know in order to expand their vocabulary, and explains that this is a nonfiction article. She reads for a sentence or two and then asks students if they hear a word they do not know, "New Zealand." She then locates New Zealand on a globe reinforcing knowledge within the context of a text.