• ELA / Literacy: Foundational Skills

    Foundational skills are critical for students in kindergarten, first, and second grade in all college- and career-ready standards, including the Common Core. Foundational skills standards include print concepts, phonological awareness, phonics and word recognition, and fluency. On this page, teachers can find resources and protocols that can be immediately implemented to support foundational skills instruction. 

  • Learn more about foundational skills.

    Professional development sessions focusing on  foundational skills and how they connect to early reading

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  • Foundational Skills Key Terms

    Quick-reference sheet defining the key terms related to reading foundational skills, including: print concepts, phonological awareness, phonemic awareness, phonics, and fluency.

  • Foundational Skills Guidance Document

    This guide outlines the essential instructional components to teach early reading skills. It is intended to provide teachers with best practices to support the explicit teaching of foundational skills: print concepts, phonological awareness, phonics and word recognition, and fluency.

  • Foundational Skills Observation Tool

    This tool is a complement to the Foundational Skills Guidance Documents and should be used along with instructional materials that provide explicit and systematic instruction and practice.

  • Foundational Skills Practice Strategies

    Collection of free resources to help kindergarten and first grade students practice and build their early literacy skills. The collection is organized by foundational skills topic and includes content for both teacher-guided and independent practice.

  • Effective Enhancements for Foundational Skills Instruction

    This document includes student-friendly, fun, and engaging games, songs, and activities that can be used to enhance foundational skills lessons. (Excerpted from the Foundational Skills Guidance Document)

  • Foundational Skills Assessment Protocol

    This document provides an assessment protocol for phonics and high frequency words, including an informal observations checklist to capture notes from student observations and a guide for weekly dictation. (Excepted from the Foundational Skills Guidance Document)

  • K-2 Non-Decodables Protocol for Reinforcing Learning

    This protocol offers a five-read routine for helping students leverage the sound and spelling patterns they’ve already learned in order to decode words in new texts. The protocol offers practical strategies to cement pre-existing phonics knowledge as well as scaffold the decoding of words with untaught sound and spelling patterns.

  • Decodable Protocol

    This resource contains a suggested protocol for repeated reads of decodable readers offering several opportunities to reinforce taught content (phonics, high frequency words, and fluency), along with sample content to demonstrate use. (Excerpted from the Foundational Skills Guidance Document)

  • Journeys Text-Specific Decodable Reader Samples – Kindergarten

    A suggested protocol for repeated reads of decodable readers, specific to the Journeys curriculum for kindergarten, offering several opportunities to reinforce taught content (phonics, high frequency words, and fluency).

  • Journeys Text-Specific Decodable Reader Samples - Grade 1

    A suggested protocol for repeated reads of decodable readers, specific to the Journeys curriculum for grade one, offering several opportunities to reinforce taught content (phonics, high frequency words, and fluency).