Standards-Alignment Information
Part 1 of Getting to Know Core Knowledge

Common Confusions about CCSS-Aligned ELA Materials

Core Knowledge's Linda Bevilacqua explains where purchasers can improve their CCSS understanding to make better decisions

In this series, Linda Bevilacqua, President of the Core Knowledge Foundation, will share an instructional materials developer’s perspective on the current materials landscape as well as provide an in-depth look at the Core Knowledge curricular materials. If you have questions you’d like Linda to address, please submit them to

In my experience, nowadays, nearly all educators are knowledgeable about the “key Shifts” articulated by the Common Core State Standards for ELA/Literacy (CCSS-ELA).  So, they look for instructional materials that include the Shifts:

  • Regular practice with complex text that increases incrementally in complexity;
  • Multiple opportunities for using text-based evidence from both literary and informational texts in reading, speaking and writing; and
  • A balance between experience with literary and informational text so that students are able to build background knowledge and vocabulary.

That said, I think there is still wide variation among educators in understanding the many nuances of the CCSS-ELA. This level of understanding impacts what people are — and are not — looking for in instructional materials. Deep understanding comes when educators have the opportunity to read and discuss up-to-date research on early literacy best practices and to review multiple ELA materials in detail to see different ways in which the Standards can be addressed. Some of the nuances of the CCSS-ELA that I think are less universally understood are reflected by relatively little change in what educators seek out in their materials. In my experience, here are three common areas of confusion:

  • The Standards focus on basic foundational skills in the early grades  and outline what the development of such skills should entail in Appendix A of the CCSS-ELA, “Reading Foundational Skills.” Recognizing the difference between truly CCSS-aligned materials — ones that include a comprehensive and systematic approach to teaching phonic and word attack skills — and those that simply “say” they use a phonics-based approach continues to be a challenging for many educators. Reading the Foundational Skills section of the Standards, as well as Appendix A, can help purchasers be more discerning consumers.
  • While everyone has gotten the message about the need for students to hear and read more informational text to build background knowledge, I think far fewer educators are familiar with this specific language in the introduction to the Standards (emphasis mine): “…Students can only gain this foundation [of background knowledge] when the curriculum is intentionally and coherently structured to develop rich content knowledge within and across grades.” Without an understanding of how curriculum can be intentionally and coherently structured to develop knowledge, educators will erroneously view all instructional materials that include the prescribed percentage of informational text as equally effective. This is not the case however: a random, helter-skelter approach to including nonfiction topics for study at each grade level fails to leverage the powerful learning effects of a coherent and cumulative sequencing of topics.
  • Similarly, many purchasers are still looking for explicit vocabulary lists and definitions that students are expected to practice and memorize. These components are not necessarily essential to strong vocabulary instruction, however. Recent research suggests that most vocabulary is learned implicitly through repeated, meaningful exposures.


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About the Author: Linda Bevilacqua is the president of the Core Knowledge Foundation, where she has worked during the past 21 years to guide the Foundation’s national initiatives. She is frequently sought out to participate in curricular and policy discussions at the national level, for example, by Student Achievement Partners, the National Governors Association and Council of Chief State School Officers to consult regarding the development of the CCSS-ELA. She has authored and contributed to the development of multiple Core Knowledge Foundation publications, including What Your Preschooler Needs to Know: Read-Alouds to Get Ready for Kindergarten (2008) and What Your Preschooler Needs to Know: Activity Books I and II. Her most recent work focused on the conceptualization and creation of the Core Knowledge Language Arts Program (CKLA), Pre-K-Grade 5, leading the Foundation's collaborative efforts with NYSED to bring model CCSS aligned ELA curriculum and professional development to teachers throughout the state of New York. These materials are now available to any teacher or parent for free download from the Core Knowledge website at . Linda is presently leading the Foundation’s initiative to develop a comprehensive history, geography, and civics program, with cross-curricular art connections, that will also be offered for free download on the Core Knowledge website; a sample unit on Medieval Europe is already available for download at