Classroom Strategies, Research and Reflections, Tools and Resources
Part 1 of Reading Fluency

What is Reading Fluency?

Literacy experts David Liben and David Paige explain the characteristics of reading fluency

How do you define “reading fluency?” For many, the term may be a little hazy – something to do with being able to read “well,” but they aren’t exactly sure what “well” encompasses.

It’s important for educators to be able to define the characteristics of reading fluency and have materials to help their students gradually build those skills through consistent practice. Achieve the Core’s Fluency Packets are sets of materials uniquely designed to address the skills needed to read fluently. The packets are intended for use in grades 2-12 (although in some instances, advanced students can start in grade 1). Each packet contains about 40 passages (enough to use one passage per week), along with comprehension questions, vocabulary, and instructions for use.

What is reading fluency, however? What skills should you focus on when you allocate class time to working on reading fluency? The following are the characteristics of reading fluency:

Word Identification Accuracy

Students who understand the principles of phonics know the sounds of the English language are represented by printed letters and letter combinations, and when combined into letter strings make the words we use in speech. They have also learned the numerous rules and exceptions that regulate how these words are transferred from print to speech, a process we call decoding. With sufficient practice, readers learn to accurately and instantly recognize a large number of words without applying their decoding knowledge. These words become part of the reader’s long-term memory. The “automatic” retrieval from long-term memory is accomplished without conscious awareness and consumes little if any of the reader’s mental resources, allowing them to focus on comprehension. The extent to which a reader correctly identifies words in text is called word identification accuracy and reflects the efficiency with which the student has learned and can decode words. Thus, decoding knowledge provides the reader with a “bootstrapping” capability to self-learn new words. Unfortunately, disfluent readers with an insufficient knowledge of the decoding system can become quickly frustrated with what they may consider to be an exhausting and uninteresting activity of little value. In sum, the accuracy with which a reader decodes words in connected text is one reflection of an efficient reading system and an important indicator of fluent reading.


The second indicator of smooth reading is the ability to read the text at an appropriate pace. Pacing is affected not only by accurate and automatic word reading, but also by familiarity with the syntax used by the author. Others factors involving comprehension processing can also affect the pace at which text is read. What is an appropriate pace? It is not speed reading. Encouraging students to read unnaturally fast will almost certainly result in poorer comprehension because the student must focus their attention on reading words quickly rather than on constructing deep meaning. Experts who study reading fluency suggest that the pace at which humans engage in conversation can be considered a rough approximation for appropriate oral reading. Of course we all know people who speak quickly and others who speak more slowly. The point here is that as teachers, we allow for the normal variance in speech when determining what represents conversational pacing for fluent reading. The goal for instruction, then, is to encourage students to read at a conversational pace that mimics their normal speech. As students grow in their reading ability they often read at a faster pace when reading silently because the articulation used to produce speech is not required.


Like the other two, this third indicator of reading fluency occurs in both oral and silent reading. Reading with prosody, or expression, is what the reader does to make the text mimic normal speech. Prosody is critical to human language because it acts as a sort of “cognitive framework” that helps us to comprehend when engaged in speaking and listening. Imagine listening to a fast-talking, monotone individual – it quickly becomes difficult to make meaning and stay engaged as a listener. Perhaps you’ve heard two people talking in a language you don’t understand. After listening carefully you’ll hear a “rhythm” to their speech that consists of pauses, inflections, phrases, and expression. What you’re hearing is prosody and it helps the listener understand what’s being said. Research suggests that students who read with prosody are more likely to understand what they read than those who do not.

For a deeper look at what reading fluency is and how to achieve it, see the Reading Fluency Overview attached at the bottom of this blog post.

14 thoughts on “What is Reading Fluency?

  1. There are 3 components to reading fluency; word identification accuracy, pacing, and prosody. As a second grade teacher, I see a lot of students that try to show me how fast they can read. Helping students to realize that “reading fast is not the goal” is essential. It is wonderful to hear students at this age use prosody in their reading.

  2. These are interesting points to keep in mind when working with students and developing their reading skills. So much emphasis sometimes is centered around reading, responding, and written responses, that much of this needed work is overlooked.

  3. Reading fluency consists of accuracy, pacing and prosody. I have 5th graders who are disfluent and easily frustrated with the complex texts they are interacting with. Comprehension is lost because all of their energy is spent on decoding. I also have “speed readers” who call words but then have lost all comprehension because of their pace. It’s important to acknowledge that upper elementary students need foundational skill support.

  4. I have had many students in my intervention groups that struggle with prosody. These students seem to have the accuracy and the pacing but they are robotic reading; just reading the words. This is where comprehension is lost. In my opinion is is the hardest component to teach.

  5. Fluency includes decoding, pacing and prosody. As a third grade teacher, the teaching of drama has often times given a positive push to all aspects of fluency for my students because of increased engagement.

  6. Reading fluency is a skill that is acquired at many different stages of a child’s academic development. In my Head Start classroom, I have a wide variety of students. Second language learners new to our country with no English, students who are a bit stronger with the English language and those that are strong in English. Exposing all students to daily quality literature, a print rich environment, engaging centers and small group instruction will eventually lead to fluency. We also do daily letter work in order to help children learn that letters make sounds and sounds together make words. This will promote word identification accuracy eventually. Pacing along with Prosody is modeled through my read alouds. I read with expression and use pacing that is the same speed as “talking.”

  7. As a kindergarten teacher, I like to read aloud a wide variety of texts to model fluent reading with appropriate phrasing, pace, and expression daily. During guided reading on day 2 or 3 of a text I often focus on using punctuation marks to assist in reading the text aloud. I first read a sentence in a choppy, monotone voice and then read it again with expression and proper pacing. I like to make it fun and get my students to laugh!

  8. It is helpful that the article explains how “reading fluency” is three parts — accuracy, pacing and prosody. I’ve read studies about how “read-alouds” are extremely important through 12th grade; and understand how this is important for fluency. In kindergarten, I do a read-aloud once a day. In guided reading groups, we work on reading the way “you talk”.

  9. Reading fluency consists of three components: word identification accuracy, pacing and prosody. As an ESOL teacher in Kinder and First grade, we need to reinforce the importance of each one of these components so ELL students become successful at their level. In my opinion, the first two components are crucial and we should work harder to help the students master the foundations. The prosody is the area that it is the harder but by modeling through different read-alouds the students will eventually acquire the expression/skill to improve his comprehension.

  10. Reading fluency consists of 3 components: accuracy, pacing and prosody. As an ESOL teacher working with K and 1st grade I directly teach phonics and word recognition daily. Pacing and especially prosody, I model and allow the students to practice daily, especially when sharing their own writing.

  11. The three components are Word Identification Accuracy, Pacing, and Prosody (expression). If students don’t have to slow down to sound out words they can better understand and make sense of what they are reading. I have students write down words they don’t know or understand while they are reading and we practice these so that they can understand and read them fluently when they come across them in the next reading. This helps them with their fluency and their comprehension. I make sure they know and understand the words which also helps them with their pacing. As they become more fluent, I help them understand that expression will also help them comprehend.

  12. As I was reading this I thought of a student I had last year who read beautifully. The problem was he did not comprehend. You could say his reading was fluent but without comprehension, he was NOT a fluent reader. Implementation of a few strategies helped narrow the gap so he could understand what he was reading.

    1. There are three components to fluency are word identification accuracy, pacing and prosody. I work mostly with word identification accuracy. I teach children the letters and letter sounds. Later in the year students start identifying the beginning sounds of words, etc. Students in my classroom are exposed to a wide variety of activities that help them develop a strong foundation in this component. This will help them build on what they know to become better and fluent readers in the later grades.

  13. There are three components of fluency which are accuracy, pacing, and prosody. Each component is important in helping students become fluent readers. I currently teach PEP and have taught kindergarten. Right now I work mostly with accuracy and teaching students letter and letter sounds. Once they can identify the letters/sounds I start teaching beginning sounds of words, etc. These early stages are important in helping students build a strong foundation in skills they need to become fluent readers.

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About the Author: David Liben is the Senior Content Specialist of the Literacy and English Language Arts team at Student Achievement Partners. David has taught elementary, middle school and high school students in public and private schools, as well as community college and teacher preparation courses, in New York City and Vermont. David still spends as much time as possible in schools with teachers and children. Together with Meredith Liben, David founded two innovative model schools in New York City - New York Prep, a junior high school in East Harlem, and in 1991, the Family Academy - where he served as Principal and lead curriculum designer. David holds a bachelor’s degree in Psychology from the University of Wisconsin and a master’s degree in school administration from Teachers College, Columbia University.

About the Author: David D. Paige is Associate Professor of Education at Bellarmine University in Louisville, Kentucky. After a 20-year career in business, Dr. Paige began his educational career as a special educator in an urban middle school in Memphis, TN. After completed his doctoral studies at the University of Memphis, Dr. Paige entered higher education where his work in schools includes early reading instruction, reading fluency, assessment, vocabulary, and comprehension in children from poverty. Dr. Paige presents regularly at national conferences such as the International Reading Association, the Association of Literacy Researchers and Educators, the American Educational Research Association, the Consortium for Research Accountability and Teacher Evaluation, the Standards Institute and Student Achievement Partners. In the summer of 2015 Dr. Paige was the recipient of the Jay and Maureen McGowan Presidential Award where he visited to Oxford University as a visiting research scholar. Dr. Paige has published his research in a variety of national journals including Reading & Writing, The Journal of Literacy Research, The Reading Teacher, Reading Psychology, Reading Horizons, Literacy Research and Instruction, the Yearbook of the Association of Literacy Researchers and Educators, the Journal of Adult and Adolescent Literacy, Cogent Education, and the Bulletin of the National Association of Secondary School Principals, as well as several book chapters. Dr. Paige is Executive Director of the Thinking Schools Academy, an initiative to improve teaching and learning in India, and holds credentials as a special educator and school administrator. Dr. Paige is President-Elect of the Association of Literacy Educators and Researchers, a national literacy organization.